In late July 2010, DISH Network, EchoStar Technologies, NagraStar and Bell TV commenced legal actions against an organization known as Dark Angel. Injunctions have been obtained and civil search orders executed against the founder of Dark Angel, known online as “echel0n”. The execution of the Orders resulted in the seizure of substantial evidence and information, the shutdown of Dark Angel’s illegal equipment, and shutdown of the websites www.dark-angel.ca and www.darkangel.com.pa. The takeover of Dark Angel is another victory in NagraStar‘s continuing efforts to preempt satellite television piracy in North America.